Evaluating the antibody response elicited by Nano-11-based swine influenza intranasal vaccine for pigs
Misty Thomas, Ph.D.
Department of Biology
Swine Influenza is a viral respiratory infection of pigs caused by the swine influenza A virus (SwIV). It has been observed that more than 70% of pigs in the United States are infected by SwIV annually. Currently, commercial SwIV vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection, which promotes only IgG production instead of necessary mucosal IgA to reduce the nasal virus shedding and transmission to other susceptible animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antibody responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of pigs vaccinated intranasally with corn-based Nano-11 particle inactivated SwIV vaccine. It was hypothesized that the Nano-11 based vaccine will elicit the highest antibody response due to its favorable adjuvant properties and positive charge. This vaccine formulation contains the killed whole H1N2 SwIV antigen (KAg) and the nanoparticle, which serves as the carrier. Methods: To measure antibodies secreted into BAL fluid elicited by the Nano-11 based SwIV vaccine, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT) were performed. The experimental vaccine groups were mock, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] + challenge, and KAg Nano-11 with poly (I:C) + challenge. Results: Our results showed that KAg Nano-11 with poly (I:C) + challenge elicited higher levels of IgG and mucosal IgA antibody titers in BAL fluid samples and also had the higher virus neutralization titers compared to the mock virus challenged group. Conclusion/Future Directions: Inactivated SwIV delivered in corn-particles with an adjuvant poly (I:C) elicits superior humoral immunity. Further studies will be performed to associate these findings with the viral load analysis. This will give important insights that will directly benefit the food industry.
Ford, Maria, "Evaluating the antibody response elicited by Nano-11-based swine influenza intranasal vaccine for pigs" (2019). Undergraduate Research and Creative Inquiry Symposia. 74.