Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Survey Measures of Guan, Jiao, and Xiao: Beyond Wang and Supple (2010)

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Wang and Supple (2010) developed measurement scales for the indigenous Chinese constructs of guan and jiao. Guan referred to parents’ active monitoring, and jiao referred to parental advice and expectations. It was found that parental jiao impacted adolescent outcomes most effectively when it was successful in eliciting adolescent xiao, the respectful attitudes toward parental socialization. The present study was intended to replicate and expand Wang and Supple's study with a larger sample of Chinese adolescents, as well as a wider range of adolescent outcomes, in an attempt to provide stronger evidence for the concurrent and criterion validity of the guan, jiao, and xiao scales. Positive associations were demonstrated among guan, jiao, parental knowledge, and parental authority. Further, results of path analysis suggested that guan, jiao, and xiao appeared to be important factors in parent–adolescent relationships, but the specific socialization processes depended on the outcome of interest. Also, mother–daughter, mother–son, father–daughter, and father–son relationships were represented by different models.

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